Neuroanatomy and Behaviour 2020-01-18T13:47:10+11:00 Shaun Khoo Open Journal Systems <p><em>Neuroanatomy and Behaviour</em> is a free open access peer reviewed journal for behavioural neuroscience research. We publish research and review articles investigating neural processes or how these influence behaviour. These can take a broad range of approaches, from studies of neural anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, and animal behaviour to human psychology, computational studies, and theoretical neuroscience. We hope that the scientific advances published in the journal will advance our understanding of normal and dysfunctional neural and psychological processes with the potential to contribute to advances in healthcare for mental disorders and neurological diseases. As a free open acccess journal, authors retain copyright, articles are licensed for reuse, and there are no fees for authors or readers.</p> Schizophrenia and drug addiction comorbidity: recent advances in our understanding of behavioural susceptibility and neural mechanisms 2020-01-18T13:47:10+11:00 Victoria Menne Rose Chesworth <p>Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder which is worsened substantially by substance abuse/addiction. Substance abuse affects nearly 50% of individuals with schizophrenia, extends across several drug classes (e.g. nicotine, cannabinoids, ethanol, psychostimulants) and worsens overall functioning of patients. Prominent theories explaining schizophrenia and addiction comorbidity include the <em>primary addiction hypothesis</em> (i.e. schizophrenia susceptibility primes drug reward circuits, increasing drug addiction risk following drug exposure), the <em>two-hit hypothesis</em> (i.e. drug abuse and other genetic and/or environmental risk factors contribute to schizophrenia development) and the <em>self-medication hypothesis</em> (i.e. drug use alleviates schizophrenia symptoms). Animal models can be used to evaluate the utility and validity of these theories. Since this literature was last reviewed by Ng and colleagues in 2013 [<em>Neurosci Biobehav Rev,</em> <em>37</em>(5)], significant advances have been made to our understanding of schizophrenia and substance abuse comorbidity. Here we review advances in the field since 2013, focussing on two key questions: 1) Does schizophrenia susceptibility increase susceptibility to drug addiction (assessing the primary addiction hypothesis), and 2) Do abused drugs exacerbate or ameliorate schizophrenia symptoms (assessing the two-hit hypothesis and the self-medication hypothesis). We addressed these questions using data from several schizophrenia preclinical models (e.g. genetic, lesion, neurodevelopmental, pharmacological) across drug classes (e.g. nicotine, cannabinoids, ethanol, psychostimulants). We conclude that addiction-like behaviour is present in several preclinical schizophrenia models, and drugs of abuse can exacerbate but also ameliorate schizophrenia-relevant behaviours. These behavioural changes are associated with altered receptor system function (e.g. dopaminergic, glutamatergic, GABAergic) critically implicated in schizophrenia and addiction pathology.</p> 2020-01-16T00:00:00+11:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Victoria Menne, Rose Chesworth Enhancing scientific dissemination in neuroscience via preprint peer-review: “Peer Community In Circuit Neuroscience” 2019-12-17T06:07:59+11:00 Marion Mercier Vincent Magloire Mahesh Karnani <p>The dissemination of scientific results and new technologies in biomedical science is rapidly evolving from an exclusive and fee-oriented publishing system towards more open, free and independent strategies for sharing knowledge. In this context, preprint servers such as bioRxiv answer a very real scientific need by enabling the rapid, free and easy dissemination of findings, regardless of whether these are novel, replicated, or even showcasing negative results. Currently, thousands of manuscripts are being shared via bioRxiv each month, and neuroscience is the largest and fastest growing subject category. However, commenting on bioRxiv is declining and no structured scientific validation such as peer-review is currently available. The Peer Community In (PCI) platform addresses this unmet need by facilitating the rigorous evaluation and validation of preprints, and <a href="">PCI Circuit Neuroscience</a> (PCI C Neuro) aims to develop and extend this tool for the neuroscience community. Here we discuss PCI C Neuro’s mission, how it works, and why it is an essential initiative in this new era of open science.</p> 2020-01-01T00:00:00+11:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Marion Mercier, Vincent Magloire, Mahesh Karnani Peer mentoring: A move towards addressing inequality between PhD students 2019-12-17T05:52:35+11:00 Justine Fam Jessica C. Lee <p>The number of students enrolling in postgraduate by research degrees has seen a large increase in recent years, a trend which is evident globally as well as within Australia. However, the rate at which PhD students are dropping out has also increased, indicating that students are not receiving adequate resources to support them throughout their candidature. We highlight that mentoring programs are effective in addressing inequality between PhD students, and describe a program that we have recently launched at UNSW Sydney.</p> 2019-07-02T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Justine Fam, Jessica C. Lee Neuroscience publishing is too important to leave to publishers 2019-12-17T05:34:38+11:00 Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo <p>Almost every open access neuroscience journal is pay-to-publish. This leaves neuroscientists with a choice of submitting to journals that not all of our colleagues can legitimately access and choosing to pay large sums of money to publish open access. <em>Neuroanatomy and Behaviour</em> is a new platinum open access journal published by a non-profit association of scientists. Since we do not charge fees, we will focus entirely on the quality of submitted articles and encourage the adoption of reproducibility-enhancing practices, like open data, preregistration, and data quality checks. We hope that our colleagues will join us in this endeavour so that we can support good neuroscience no matter where it comes from.</p> 2019-06-20T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo How to find the right postdoctoral position for you 2019-12-17T05:46:16+11:00 Dominic M. D. Tran Aaron Veldre <p>The increasingly competitive academic job market has forced PhD graduates in psychology, neuroscience, and related fields to maximize their research output and secure grant funding during the early postdoctoral period of their careers. In the present article, based on a Q&amp;A session presented at a research retreat (Brain and Behaviour Lab, University of Sydney) in February 2018, we draw on our firsthand experiences of navigating the transition from graduate student to postdoc. We offer practical advice to students who may be nearing the end of their PhDs and planning their first steps toward an academic career. Although the postdoc experience is varied, it is important for early-career researchers to make optimal choices to increase their chances of securing a continuing academic position. Ultimately, the goal of a postdoctoral position should be to develop all the facets of an academic career, but with a strong focus on the quantity and quality of research outputs.</p> 2019-06-20T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Dominic M. D. Tran, Aaron Veldre Why would someone want to present their thesis in three minutes? 2019-12-17T05:38:35+11:00 Czarina Evangelista <p>The three-minute thesis (3MT) competition was founded in the Univeristy of Queensland in 2008, and has since spread globally. The goal of the event is for graduate students to present their research to a non-specialist audience with no props and only one non-animated slide. To top it all off, this presentation must be under three minutes! Why would someone want to do take on this challenge? Czarina Evangelista is a PhD student at Concordia Univeristy's Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, and she explains the motivation behind her participation and what she learned from the experience.</p> 2019-06-19T00:00:00+10:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Czarina Evangelista